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These intubations are performed on often critically ill patients who have an additional aspiration risk. J.C. Sakles et al. 44 studied over a 4-year  period 1,828 orotracheal intubations in emergency departments Adverse Events (AEs)  included aspiration, oxygen desaturation, oesophageal intubation, hypotension, dysrhythmia, and cardiac arrest Intubation successful incidence of...

Archie Brain is a British anaesthetist best known as the inventor of the laryngeal mask in 1981. The LMA™ has since been used over 300 million times worldwide in elective anaesthesia and emergency airway management.A nasal laryngeal mask airway with a detachable tube and flanged...

Standard endotracheal tubes have flat left facing bevels with the tip on the right side. The turbinates are theoretically more at risk from damage when passing an endotracheal tube through the right nostril, and the septum with the left nostril . Studies have compared the...

-EPISTAXIS Epistaxis rate of 86% reported with nasal endotracheal intubation.16 -NASAL AND NASOPHARYNGEAL SOFT TISSUE MUCOSAL DAMAGE 3,4 -AVULSION OF A TURBINATE 5,6,7 - RETROPHARYNGEAL DISSECTION 10,48 - OBSTRUCTION OF ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE WITH AVULSED TISSUE. 7, 8, 9 - POST INTUBATION NASAL PAIN. - AUTONOMIC HYPERTENSIVE AND TACHYCARDIC RESPONSE TO NASAL INTUBATION. -...

German physician Richard Kayser 32 first described the nasal cycle in 1895. He observed the alternate congestion and decongestion of blood-filled erectile tissue in the nasal turbinates. The duration of this cycle ranges from 40 minutes to several hours in normal nasal passages and allows...

a. Studies showing increased safety of using catheter/introducer guidance for nasotracheal intubation. 22,23,24,16,41 b. Studies showing increasing external diameter of tube passing through airway increases complications. 2,4,15 c. Study to show safety of reinforced tube in nasal endo- tracheal intubation compared to PVC tubing. 25 d. Study to show difficult passage...